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Initially a dominion , Pakistan adopted a constitution in , becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

A middle power , [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state.

It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, [33] [34] and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class populations.

The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation , poverty , illiteracy and corruption. The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian.

Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.

During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.

The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.

During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts. The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.

In contrast to the Indian National Congress 's anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan's future civil society.

The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Muslims in politics.

Fazlul Haque , popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. Thus, the election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League.

The Congress , which initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact.

However, the British did not want colonial India to be partitioned , and in one last effort to prevent it, they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.

As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in — In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between , and 2,, [] [] [] [] [] [] people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions [] [] while 50, Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33, Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims.

After independence in , Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament , [ citation needed ] but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September With dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.

The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten. Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani , a respected Deobandi alim scholar who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in , and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution.

Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.

A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust".

The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of , , and Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza , who was replaced by the army chief , General Ayub Khan.

After adopting a presidential system in , the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in In Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party PPP , Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.

Independent researchers estimate that between , and , civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million, [] a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated.

Rose believe there was no genocide. With Pakistan surrendering in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards promulgating its constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy.

Democratic rule resumed from to —an era of self- consciousness , intellectual leftism , nationalism , and nationwide reconstruction.

Democracy ended with a military coup in against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in From to , President Zia's corporatisation and economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.

President Zia died in a plane crash in , and Benazir Bhutto , daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country's first female Prime Minister.

The PPP was followed by conservative Pakistan Muslim League N , and over the next decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the country's situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the s.

This period is marked by prolonged stagflation , instability, corruption , nationalism , geopolitical rivalry with India , and the clash of left wing - right wing ideologies.

When the National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 November , the new elections were called by the Election Commission.

Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. The Objectives Resolution in March , which declared God as the sole sovereign over the entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic state.

However, Pakistan's pan-Islamist sentiments for a united Islamic bloc called Islamistan were not shared by other Muslim governments, [] although Islamists such as the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood , became drawn to the country.

Pakistan's desire for an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the s when the Organization of Islamic Conference OIC was formed.

The strongest opposition to the Islamist ideological paradigm being imposed on the state came from the Bengali Muslims of East Pakistan [] whose educated class, according to a survey by social scientist Nasim Ahmad Jawed, preferred secularism and focused on ethnic identity unlike educated West Pakistanis who tended to prefer an Islamic identity.

After Pakistan's first ever general elections the Constitution was created by an elected Parliament. It also stated that all laws would have to be brought into accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and that no law repugnant to such injunctions could be enacted.

Pakistan's leftist Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto faced vigorous opposition which coalesced into a movement united under the revivalist banner of Nizam-e-Mustafa "Rule of the Prophet " [] which aimed to establish an Islamic state based on Sharia laws.

Bhutto agreed to some Islamist demands before being overthrown in a coup. The geography and climate of Pakistan are extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife.

It is the 33rd-largest nation by total area , although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted.

Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus—Tsangpo Suture Zone and overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian plate , mainly on the Iranian plateau.

Gilgit—Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes. This region has the highest rates of seismicity and the largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region.

Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain, and the Balochistan Plateau. There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in the Punjab and Sindh.

The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all.

There are four distinct seasons in Pakistan: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November.

The diversity of the landscape and climate in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce , pine , and deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains to deciduous trees in most of the country for example, the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountains , to palms such as coconut and date in the southern Punjab, southern Balochistan, and all of Sindh.

The western hills are home to juniper , tamarisk , coarse grasses, and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south.

Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from 1, to 4, metres 3, to 13, feet in most of the northern and northwestern highlands.

In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. In most of the Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forest as well as tropical and xeric shrublands.

These forests are mostly of mulberry , acacia , and eucalyptus. The fauna of Pakistan also reflects the country's varied climate. Around bird species are found there, [] [] including crows , sparrows , mynas , hawks , falcons , and eagles.

Palas, Kohistan , has a significant population of western tragopan. The southern plains are home to mongooses , small Indian civet , hares, the Asiatic jackal , the Indian pangolin , the jungle cat , and the desert cat.

There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild boar , deer, porcupines , and small rodents in the surrounding areas.

The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas , wildcats, and leopards. The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan.

A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan—India border and in some parts of Cholistan. The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems.

Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem.

The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues. Pakistan's political experience is essentially related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation.

This constitution is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government. The first successful democratic transition occurred in May Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism , conservatism , and the third way.

As of the general elections held in , the three main political parties in the country are: the centre-right conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N ; the centre-left socialist PPP; and the centrist and third-way Pakistan Movement for Justice PTI.

Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations. The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory.

Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world's major maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the natural resources of Central Asian countries.

Due to ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the s. A close ally of the United States during the Cold war , Pakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.

Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel ; [] nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas.

Pakistan was one of the first countries to establish formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China , and the relationship continues to be strong since China's war with India in , forming a special relationship.

Friendly Sino-Pakistani relations reached new heights as both countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding MoUs in for co-operation in different areas.

After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries [] and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim world , or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity.

Such developments along with Pakistan's creation did not get American approval, and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite.

Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco , and Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan.

Pakistan had wished to foment an 'Islamic Revolution' that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.

On the other hand, Pakistan's relations with Iran have been strained at times due to sectarian tensions. Maintaining cultural, political, social, and economic relations with the Arab world and other countries in the Muslim world is a vital factor in Pakistan's foreign policy.

A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces : Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Balochistan, [] and three territories : Islamabad Capital Territory , Gilgit—Baltistan and Azad Kashmir.

The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions , which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit—Baltistan formerly Northern Areas.

In , the constitutional assignment the Gilgit—Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order awarded the Gilgit—Baltistan a semi-provincial status , giving it self-government.

The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts , tehsils , and union councils , with an elected body at each tier.

Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory. Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence ISI , was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts , Federal Shariat Courts one in each province and one in the federal capital , District Courts one in each district , Judicial Magistrate Courts in every town and city , Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts.

The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs. The Kashmir —the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan.

The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in , , and The conflict in witnessed Pakistan's unconditional surrender and a treaty that subsequently led to the independence of Bangladesh.

India claims the Kashmir on the basis of the Instrument of Accession —a legal agreement with Kashmir's leaders executed by Maharaja Hari Singh , who agreed to cede the area to India.

However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in establishing a Line of Control LoC that divided Kashmir between the two nations.

This was confirmed in a statement by India's Defense Minister, Krishna Menon , who said: "Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive.

Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations, [] while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement and to the fact that elections take place regularly.

The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory ICT each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory.

The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police Service , which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan.

Namely, there is four provincial police service including the Punjab Police , Sindh Police , Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police , and the Balochistan Police ; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals.

The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and form a vital part in each provincial police service. The law enforcement in Pakistan also has a Motorway Patrol which is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's inter-provincial motorway network.

In the Punjab and Sindh, the Pakistan Rangers are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes providing assistance to the police.

Male homosexuality is illegal in Pakistan and punishable with up to life in prison. The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about , personnel on active duty and , reservists, as of tentative estimates in The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest principle staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the civilian government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces.

The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations and regularly export military equipment and technology transfer to Pakistan.

Territorial problems eventually led to another conventional war in ; over the issue of Bengali refugees that led to another war in which resulted in Pakistan's unconditional surrender in East Pakistan.

In , the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border. Rising tensions with neighbouring USSR in their involvement in Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence community , mostly the ISI , systematically coordinated the US resources to the Afghan mujahideen and foreign fighters against the Soviet Union's presence in the region.

Military reports indicated that the PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force , supported by the Afghan Air Force during the course of the conflict ; [] one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy.

It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu , Somalia, in in Operation Gothic Serpent. Pakistan has deployed its military in some Arab countries , providing defence, training, and playing advisory roles.

Pakistan's fighter pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the Grand Mosque 's compound.

Since the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan , mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions. Economy of Pakistan is the 23rd largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity PPP , and 42nd largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product.

Economists estimate that Pakistan was part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP.

This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward. The increasing proportion of Pakistan's youth provides the country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment.

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